Languages of Tanzania – Overview, Language Families and More
Table of Contents
- 1 Languages of Tanzania – Overview, Language Families and More
- 1.1 Overview of Language of Tanzania
- 1.2 Categories of Languages of Tanzania
- 1.3 Minor Languages of Tanzania
- 1.4 Extinct Languages of Tanzania
Tanzania is multilingual, with 126 languages spoken in the country according to Ethnologue. However, none of the languages of Tanzania is solely spoken natively by a large plurality or majority of the country’s citizens. The two most commonly spoken dialect in the country is Swahili (Tanzania’s official language) and English (inherited from the colonial rule era). While both serve as Tanzania’s working languages, Swahili is dominant.
Overview of Language of Tanzania
Of the 126 spoken languages of Tanzania, 18 are still developing, eight are in the process of dying, 40 are currently endangered, two are institutional, and 58 are commonly used. Three languages also recently became extinct.
The most commonly spoken local languages of Tanzania can be divided into two language categories: Nilo-Saharan (or the Nilotic branch) and Niger-Congo (or the Bantu branch). The Nilotic and Bantu populations respectively speak these languages.
The Sandawe and Hadza hunter-gatherers speak languages that contain click consonants. These languages of Tanzania have temporarily been categorized within the Khoisan class (however, Hadza language may be a language isolate).
Languages of Tanzania that belong to the Indo-European class are spoken by British and Hindustani residents, and languages belonging to the Afro-Asiatic class are spoken by the minority Semitic and Cushitic ethnic groups.
Tanzania has many different ethnic groups, and each generally speaks their mother tongue amongst themselves. When different populations engage, Swahili and English are spoken in varying degrees of fluency.
The official national linguistic policy of 1984 states that English is primarily used in secondary education institutions, technology, higher courts, and universities. The policy also stated that Swahili belongs to adult and primary education institutions and the social and political sphere.
In 2015, the Tanzanian government announced that English as an academic language would be discontinued to overhaul the Tanzanian school system.
Additionally, several sign language variations are used in Tanzania.
Categories of Languages of Tanzania
The major languages of Tanzania are:
- Maasai (682,000 – 2016)
- Luo (185,000 – 2009)
- Sambaa (660,000 – 2001)
- Bena (592,000 – 2009)
- Digo (116,000 – 2009)
- Gogo (1,080,000 – 2009)
- Haya (1,940,000 – 2016)
- Hehe (1,210,000 – 2016)
- Luguru (404,000 – 2009)
- Makonde (1,470,000 – 2016)
- Nyamwezi (1,470,000 – 2016)
- Rangi (410,000 – 2007)
- Safwa (322,000 – 2009)
- Sukuma (8,130,000 – 2016)
- Yao (630,000 – 2016)
Minor Languages of Tanzania
The less commonly spoken languages of Tanzania are:
Extinct Languages of Tanzania
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