The Inside Look of Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) – The Party of the Revolution

The Inside Look of Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) – The Party of the Revolution

Also known as the Revolutionary Party in Swahili language, the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) is Tanzania’s dominant party. Only the Liberian Whig Party has ruled longer than the CCM in Africa. The party was established in 1977 when the Afro Shirazi Party and the Tanzania African National Union, which were the only operating political parties in the semi-independent island of Zanzibar and mainland Tanzania respectively, merged.

CCM and its predecessor TANU have governed Tanzania without interruption since independence. Some describe the party as autocratic. Since the advent of a multiple-party system, CCM has emerged victorious in the last six national polls in 2020, 2015, 2010, 2000, and 1995. The party’s presidential aspirant in 2005, Jakaya Kikwete, emerged victorious by a wide margin. He got over 80 percent of the total vote cast. Of the 239 electoral districts, the party secured 186 in the 2010 election to remain the major party in the legislature.

History

Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) Political Party BiographyFollowing the merging of the dominant party in Zanzibar, the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP), and the dominant party in Tanganyika, TANU, the party came into existence on February 5, 1977, under Mwalimu Julius Nyerere’s headship.

Tanzania’s political landscape has been dominated by CCM/TANU since Tanganyika became independent in 1961. The 1977 merger with the Afro-Shirazi Party also made it the governing party in Zanzibar, where the Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA) has challenged its dominance.

From its inception until 1992, no other political party was lawfully recognized in Tanzania except the CCM. The party’s leadership changes every five years when a new chairman is elected to lead the party for the next five years. A referendum is usually conducted to confirm the appointment. Also, CCM presents two candidates to the electorate for election into the Bunge or National Assembly. This system was altered on the 1st of July 1992, when constitutional amendments and new laws made by the parliament permitted and regulated the activities of other political parties other than the CCM.

Philosophy

The party initially championed African socialism and upheld a collective agricultural system called Ujamaa and fully aligned with the leftist movement. Today, the party is more aligned towards social democracy. The party wants to forge ahead with its modernization plan to ensure:

  1. Enhanced productivity that would raise Tanzania’s earnings
  2. More employment opportunities and better management
  3. Possession of the latest and modern scientific knowledge
  4. More expansive foreign and local selling points for the nation’s goods, and;
  5. More robust and improved private sector to serve as the national economy’s powerhouse to allow the government to focus on governing the nation, providing welfare services, infrastructure and safety of lives and properties.

In the same vein, the main target of the party’s foreign affairs policy is global economic diplomacy and friendly relations with neighbours.

Performance in Elections

The CCM plays a pivotal role in Tanzanian society. It has emerged victorious in every election into the office of the President nationally and at the semi-independent level in the Island of Zanzibar under the multiple party system in 2015, 2010, 2005, 2000 and 1995. The party is also dominant in the parliament.

Zanzibar’s presidential and legislative poll, held on October 30, 2005, saw the party’s candidate and current President, Amani Abeid Karume, winning 53.1 percent of the total vote. The party also secured thirty out of fifty seats in the legislature.

Jakaya Kikwete
Jakaya Kikwete

In the countrywide presidential and Bunge poll held on December 14, 2005, the Minister of Foreign Affairs and candidate of the CCM Jakaya Kikwete emerged victorious with 80.3 percent of the ballot. The CCM secured 206 of the 232 legislative seats filled via direct election.

Jakaya Kikwete won reelection with 63 percent of the total votes on October 31, 2010. The CCM also won 186 from the 239 legislative seats filled through direct election.

CCM’s John Pombe Magufuli emerged winner of the election held on October 30, 2015, with 58.5 percent of the ballot.

Socialist International fully accepted the party into the organisation at their spring congress held between the 4th and 5th of February 2013.

CCM Leadership Structure

CCM Current Leaders

Following the demise of ex-chairperson John Magufuli, who became the party’s chairperson on 23rd July 2016, the party’s top position has remained vacant. Magufuli’s predecessor, Jakaya Kikwete, became chairperson in November 2012.

CCM National Leadership

Chairperson: Samia Suluhu Hassan

Secretary-General: Daniel Chongolo

Secretary for Finance and Economic Affairs: Dr. Frank George Haule Hawassi

Secretary for Party Affairs and International Relations: Retired Colonel Ngemela Lubinga

Secretary for Party Ideology and Public Relations: Shaka H. Shaka

Secretary for Organisation: Perreira Ame Silima

Deputy Secretary-General Zanzibar: Dr. Abdalla Juma

Deputy Secretary-General Mainland: Catherine Mndeme

Vice-Chairman Mainland: Philip Mangula

Vice-Chairman Zanzibar: Ali Mohamed Shein

CCM National Chairperson

Name Tenure
Samia Suluhu 2021 till date
John Magufuli 2016 to 2021
Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete 2006 to 2016
Benjamin Mkapa 1996 to 2005
Ali Hasan Mwinyi 1986 to 1995
Mwalimu Julius Nyerere 1977 to 1985

CCM National Vice Chairperson (Island)

Name Tenure
Ali Mohammed Shein 2012 till date
Amani Abeid Karume ???? to 2012
Salmin Amour

 

CCM National Vice Chairperson (Mainland)

Name Tenure
John Malecela  
Pius Msekwa 2007 to 2012
Philip Mangula 2012 till date

 

CCM Secretaries-General

Secretary-General Year
Daniel Chongolo 2021 till date
Bashiru Ally 2018 to April 2021
Abdulrahman Kinana 2012 to May 2018
Wilson Mukama 2011 to 2012
Yusuf Makamba 2007 to 2011
Philip Mangula 1997 to 2007
Lawrence Gama 1995 to 1997
Horace Kolimba 1990 to 1995
Rashidi Kawawa 1982 to 1990
Pius Msekwa 1977 to 1982

 

CCM Electoral Record

Presidential Polls

 

Year

 

CCM Candidate

 

Total Votes

 

Percentage

 

Outcome

1980 Mwalimu Julius Nyerere 5,570,853 95.5 percent Victory
1985 Ali Hasan Mwinyi 4,778,113 95.7 percent Victory
1990 5,198,124 95.7 percent Victory
1995 Benjamin Mkapa 4,027,422 61.8 percent Victory
2000 5,863,211 71.7 percent Victory
2005 Jakaya Kikwete 9,123,852 80.2 percent Victory
2010
5,276,817 62.8 percent Victory
2015 John Magufuli 8,882,938 58.4 percent Victory
2020 12,516,257 84.4 percent Victory

Legislative Polls

Year   CCM Leader Total  Votes Percentage Seats Won Change

 

 

 

Position

Government
1980 Mwalimu Julius Nyerere 5,418,099 100 percent 264 out of 264 First Only recognised party
1985 Ali Hassan Mwinyi 4,748,997 100 percent 274 out of 274 +10 First Only recognised party
1990 5,188,120 97.8 percent 264 out of 264 -10 First Absolute majority
1995 Benjamin Mkapa 3,814,216 59.2 percent 214 out of 285 -50 First Absolute majority
2000 4,628,126 65.2 percent 243 out of 285 +29 First Absolute majority
2005 Jakaya

Kikwete

7,579,898 70 percent 264 out of 324 +21 First Absolute majority
2010 4,641,833 60.2 percent 253 out of 357 -11 First Absolute majority
2015 John Magufuli 8,021,422 55 percent 260 out of 393 +7 First Absolute majority
2020 350 out of 393 +90 First Absolute majority

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