Population Demographics of Tanzania

Tanzania Demography Data About its Population

Gaddafi Mosque Dodoma Tanzania
Gaddafi Mosque Dodoma Tanzania

This article looks into Tanzania demography, including number of people, ethnicity, level of education, health, economic status, religious affiliation, and other matters affecting the people.

The distribution of people in Tanzania is completely unequal. Most people live on the northern border or the east coast, with much of the country left with few people. The ratio varies from 12 square kilometers (31 / sq mi) in Katavi Region to 3,133 per square kilometer (8,110 / sq mi) in Dar es Salaam. About 70% of the population lives in rural areas, although this percentage has been declining since 1967. Although Dar es Salaam is the largest city but legally Dodoma region, located in central Tanzania, is the capital, but the move to relocate government buildings to Dodoma has slowed down significantly.

This population is made up of about 125 ethnic groups, including Sukuma, Nyamwezi, Chaga, and Haya, who have more than 1 million people per tribe (Tip: explore our article “Origins of Tanzania Tribes” to learn more about the history of tribes in Tanzania).

Tanzania has more than 100 different spoken languages, making it the most multilingual country in East Africa. The spoken languages ​of Tanzania come from all four African language families: Bantu, Cushite, Nilotic, and Khoisan. Swahili and English are the official languages ​​of Tanzania. Kiswahili is derived from the Bantu branch of the Niger-Congo family. The Sandawe people speak a language that may be related to the Khoe languages ​​of Botswana and Namibia, while the language of the Hadza tribe, although having similar consonants, is an unrelated language. The Iraqw language is Cush. Other languages ​​are Hindi and Portuguese (spoken by the Goa and Mozambicans).

Although the majority of Zanzibar‘s population came from the mainland, there is a group known as Shirazis which has a direct link to the origin of Zanzibar islands all the way back to early settlers (from Persia). Non-Africans living on the mainland and Zanzibar make up 1% of the total population. The Asian community, including Hindus, Sikhs, Shi’a and Sunni Muslims, Parsis, and Goa, has declined by 50 percent in the 2000s and early 2010 to 50,000 in mainland Tanzania and 4,000 in Zanzibar. It is estimated that 70,000 Arabs and 20,000 Europeans (90% of whom are from the United Kingdom) live in Tanzania. More than 100,000 people living in Tanzania are of Asian or European descent.

Based on the figures for 1999–2003, more than 74,000 people born in Tanzania were living in the countries that are part of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, of which 32,630 were living in the United Kingdom; 19,960 in Canada; 12,225 in the United States; 1,714 in Australia; 1,180 in the Netherlands; and 1,012 in Sweden.

 

Population

According to the 2012 census, Tanzania had a total population of 44,928,923 as opposed to 12,313,469 residents in 1967, this is due to a growth rate of 2.9 percent annually. 44.1 percent of the population represents a group under the age of 15, with 35.5 percent representing a group aged 15-35, 52.2 percent being a group aged 15-64, and 3.8 percent being an older group of 64 years.

According to the 2012 World Population Adjustment Amendment, children under the age of 15 accounted for 44.8 percent of the total population, with 52.0 percent being 15–64 years old and 3.1 percent aged 65 or more.

Total of People Population with Age Range 0–14 (%) Population with Age Range 15–64 (%) Population with Age Range 65+ (%)
1950 7,650,000 46.0 51.8 2.2
1955 8,741,000 45.7 52.0 2.3
1960 10,074,000 45.8 51.8 2.4
1965 11,683,000 45.8 51.7 2.4
1970 13,605,000 46.2 51.3 2.5
1975 15,978,000 46.4 51.1 2.6
1980 18,687,000 46.5 50.8 2.6
1985 21,850,000 46.4 51.0 2.7
1990 25,485,000 46.0 51.3 2.7
1995 29,944,000 45.3 51.9 2.8
2000 34,021,000 44.8 52.3 2.9
2005 38,824,000 44.6 52.4 3.0
2010 44,793,000 44.8 52.0 3.1

Population Structure

Population structure (01.07.2013) (estimates):

Age Group Males Females Total %
Total 23 267 957 23 864 623 47 132 580 100
0-4 4 191 004 4 121 103 8 312 107 17,64
5-9 3 608 891 3 551 955 7 160 846 15,19
10-14 2 735 494 2 728 687 5 464 181 11,59
15-19 2 494 983 2 490 960 4 985 943 10,58
20-24 2 179 173 2 160 970 4 340 143 9,21
25-29 1 730 600 1 754 007 3 484 607 7,39
30-34 1 289 114 1 563 083 2 852 197 6,05
35-39 1 207 182 1 394 428 2 601 610 5,52
40-44 1 032 605 1 088 697 2 121 302 4,50
45-49 770 149 797 868 1 568 017 3,33
50-54 604 621 629 580 1 234 201 2,62
55-59 422 141 459 343 881 484 1,87
60-64 347 604 387 334 734 938 1,56
65-69 223 365 243 517 466 882 0,99
70-74 179 960 207 795 387 755 0,82
75-79 115 076 130 796 245 872 0,52
80+ 135 995 154 500 290 495 0,62
Age Group Males Females Total %
0-14 10 535 389 10 401 745 20 937 134 44,42
15-64 12 078 172 12 726 270 24 804 442 52,63
65+ 654 396 736 608 1 391 004 2,95

Important Data

The 2010 Tanzania demography on Health Survey (TDHS) estimates that the infant mortality rate for 2005-10 was 51. Registration for other important events in Tanzania has not been completed. The United Nations Population Department prepared the following estimates:

Period Population Living / Year Deaths / Year Natural Changes by Year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 402,000 184,000 218,000 49.0 22.4 26.6 6.74 153
1955-1960 464,000 198,000 267,000 49.3 21.0 28.3 6.80 143
1960-1965 535,000 218,000 322,000 49.1 20.1 29.0 6.80 136
1965-1970 616,000 239,000 384,000 48.7 18.9 29.8 6.79 128
1970-1975 709,000 258,000 475,000 48.0 17.5 30.5 6.75 119
1975-1980 821,000 275,000 542,000 47.4 15.9 31.5 6.73 109
1980-1985 932,000 307,000 633,000 46.0 15.2 30.8 6.55 104
1985-1990 1,061,000 348,000 727,000 44.8 14.7 30.1 6.36 102
1990-1995 1,197,000 423,000 892,000 43.2 15.3 27.9 6.05 102
1995-2000 1,336,000 480,000 815,000 41.8 15.0 26.8 5.75 92
2000-2005 1,522,000 492,000 961,000 41.8 13.5 28.3 5.66 77
2005-2010 1,744,000 454,000 1,230,000 41.6 10.8 30.2 5.58 61
2010-2015 1,865000
2015-2020 2,052,000
* CBR = Projections of Birth Rate (per 1000); CDR = Death Rate (1000); NC = Natural Changes (by 1000); TFR = Total fertility rate (number of Children per woman); IMR = Infant mortality rate for every 1000 generations

 

Births and Deaths

Year Population Living Population Deaths Natural Increase TFR
2009 1 667 889 577 393 1 090 496
2010 1 678 325 573 213 1 105 122
2011 1 687 203 565 099 1 122 104
2012 44 928 923 1 694 943 555 975 1 138 968 5.2

Life Expectancy

Period Life Expectancy
1950–1955 41.25
1955–1960  43.03
1960–1965  44.31
1965–1970  45.83
1970–1975  47.70
1975–1980  49.90
1980–1985  50.64
1985–1990  50.86
1990–1995  49.61
1995–2000  50.06
2000–2005  53.65
2005–2010  58.82
2010–2015  62.78

Population

Region 1967 (Population / Birth Rate Estimation / Total Births) 1978 (Population / Birth Rate Estimation / Total Births) 1988 (Population / Birth Rate Estimation / Total Births) 2002 (Population / Birth Rate Estimation / Total Births) 2012 (Population / Birth Rate Estimation / Total Births)
Mainland Tanzania, including Zanzibar 12,313,469 / 47 / 7.3 17,036,499 / 49 / 6.3 22,455,207 / 47 / 5.4 33,461,849 / 43 / 4.2 44,928,923 / /
Zanzibar 354,815 / 48 / 7.3 476,111 / 48 / 7.1 640,675 / 49 / 6.4 981,754 / 43 / 4.5 1,303,569 / /

Births and Reproduction (Demography and Health Research)

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Required Fertility Rate) and Child Birth Rate (CBR):

Period CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban Areas) TFR (Urban Areas) CBR (Rural Areas) TFR (Rural Areas) CBR (Zanzibar) TFR (Zanzibar)
1991-1992 42.8 6.25 (5.57) 42.1 5.14 43.0 6.59 (5.91)
1996 40.8 5.82 (5.1) 36.3 4.11 (3.5) 41.9 6.34 (5.5)
1999 41.4 5.55 (4.8) 34.4 3.16 (2.9) 43.5 6.48 (5.5)
2004-2005 42.4 5.7 (4.9) 34.6 3.6 (3.1) 44.8 6.5 (5.6) 38.0 5.3 (4.6)
2010 38.1 5.4 (4.7) 35.0 3.7 (3.3) 39.0 6.1 (5.3) 35,9 5.1 (4.8)
2015-16 37.2 5.2 (4.5) 35.1 3.8 (3.4) 38.1 6.0 (5.1) 36.3 5.1 (4.6)
2017 35.5 4.9 31.0 3.5 37.3 5.7 33.7 4.5

Total Fertility Rate in Tanzania

Fertility Rate is estimated by Survey (TDHS) as well as the Population Census at different times. TDHS studies estimated the following fertility rates:: 6.3 (1991–92), 5.8 (1996), 5.7 (2004–05), 5.4 (2010) and 2002 The Population Census estimated 6.3

Regions 1967 1978 1988 2006-09 2017
Tanzania (Total Countrywide) 7.3 6.3 5.4 5.4 4.9
Dodoma (Mji mkuu) 7.6 6.2 5.9 6.0
Arusha 7.5 7.0 6.0 3.2
Kilimanjaro 8.9 7.5 5.8 3.4
Tanga 7.7 6.2 5.1 4.6
Morogoro 6.2 6.5 4.3 3.7
Pwani 5.8 6.1 5.4 3.8
Dar es Salaam 5.0 5.4 3.4 2.8
Lindi 5.4 4.6 3.9
Mtwara 5.7 4.9 4.5 3.3
Ruvuma 7.1 6.1 5.0 3.7
Iringa 7.8 6.3 4.9 4.5
Mbeya 8.1 6.3 4.7 4.7
Singida 6.3 5.9 5.7 7.4
Tabora 6.7 6.0 5.4 6.9
Rukwa 6.1 6.2 5.7
Kigoma 6.6 7.2 6.5 5.7
Shinyanga 8.7 6.9 6.3 5.5
Kagera 7.5 7.3 6.9 4.7
Mwanza 8.1 7.1 6.1 6.0
Mara 8.0 6.9 5.9 6.4
Manyara 6.0
Njombe 4.2
Simiyu 7.6
Geita 6.9
Katavi 6.7
Songwe 5.4
Mainland Tanzania 7.3 6.3 5.4 5.4 4.9
 Kaskazini Unguja 7.1 7.0 4.5
Kusini Unguja 6.2 6.5 3.2
Mjini Magharibi 6.1 5.2 3.6
Kaskazini Pemba 8.3 6.9 6.3
Kusini Pemba 8.2 7.6 5.5
Tanzania Zanzibar 7.3 7.1 6.4 5.1 4.5

Residents try to rescue the injured at the scene of an accident that killed school children, teachers and a minibus driver in Rhota village along the Arusha-Karatu highway in the northern Tanzanian region of Arusha, May 6, 2017
Residents try to rescue the injured at the scene of an accident that killed school children, teachers and a minibus driver in Rhota village along the Arusha-Karatu highway in the northern Tanzanian region of Arusha, May 6, 2017

Other Tanzania Demography Data

The following are statistics on Tanzania demography for 2019 based on the Global Population Survey:

One person is born every 14 seconds

One person dies every 1 minute

One person moves or relocates to the country every 13 minutes

One person makes a profit in business every 17 seconds

The following are Tanzania demography data from the CIA Book that collects the World’s True Information, unless otherwise indicated.

Population

55,451,343 (July 2018 estimates)

48,261,942 (July 2013 estimates)

Age structure

Ages 0-14: 43.4% (with 12,159,482 / 11,908,654)

15-24 years: 20.03% (5,561,922 / 5,543,788)

25-54 years: 30.02% (8,361,460 / 8,284,229)

55-64 years: 3.51% (and 872,601 / is 1,074,480)

65 years and older: 3.04% (706,633 / 978,094) (2018 estimates)

Middle Ages

Total: 17.9 years. Global equation: 215th.

Male: 17.6 years

Female: 18.2 years (2018 estimates)

Total: 17.3 years

Male: 17.0 years

Female: 17.6 years (2013 Estimates)

Birth Rate

35.3 / 1,000 population (2018 estimates) Global comparison: 19th

Death Rate

7.5 deaths / 1,000 population (2018 estimates) Global average: 112

Total Fertility Rate

4.71 children / woman (2018 estimates) Global comparison: 20th

Population growth rate

2.74% (2018 Estimates) Global comparison: 14th

The Mother’s Estimated Age When Begins to Give Birth

19.8 years (2015/16 Estimates.)

Note: The average age for a woman to start giving birth is 25-29

The Usage Rate of Contraception

38.4% (2015/16)

Relocation Rate or Migration to the Country

(of) immigrant-0.5 / 1,000 population (2018 estimates) Global land ratio: 127th

Ratio of Dependence

Total dependence ratio: 93.4 (2015 estimates)

Rate of dependence on youth: 87.4 (2015 estimates)

Rate of Dependence on the Elderly: 6 (2015 estimates)

Possible support ratio: 16.6 (2015 estimates)

Urban Migration

Urban population: is 33.8% of the total population (2018)

Urban migration rate: 5.22% Annual change rate (2015-20 estimates)

Ethnic Groups

In mainland Tanzania, 99% are Africans (where 95% are Bantu which are more than 130 tribes), the other 1% (people from Asia, Europe, and Arabia); Zanzibar – Arabs, Africans, mixed Arabs and Africans. About 100,000 people living in Tanzania are from Europe or Asia.

An Tanzanian elderly woman
An Tanzanian elderly woman

Religion in Tanzania

Christians 61.4%, Muslims 35.2%, religions 1.8%, other 0.2%, non-religious 1.4% (2010 estimates)

Note: The people of Zanzibar are almost all Muslims

Gender Ratio

During birth: 1.03 (m) male / female

Ages 0-14: 1.02 (m) male / female

Ages 15–54 : 1.00 (m) male / female

Ages 55-64: 0.75 (m) male / female

Ages 65 years and older: 0.76 (m) male / female

Total population: 0.99 (m)

Male: 59.48 years

Female: 62.09 years (2013 estimates)

Prospects for Life expectancy During Birth

Total population: 63.1 years

Men: 61.6 years

Women: 64.6 years (2018 estimates)

Total population: 60.76 years

Men: 59.48 years

Women: 62.09 years (2013 estimates)

HIV / AIDS

Age 15-49 HIV infection cases:

A total of 4.5 percent, with 6.2 percent women and 3.8 percent men being infected.

People living with HIV / AIDS:

1.5 million (2017 estimates)

Deaths:

32,000 (2017 estimates)

Language

Kiswahili or Swahili or Kiunguja (from Zanzibar) (official)

English (official)

Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar)

Literacy

Definition: 15 years and older can read and write Kiswahili, English, or Arabic

Total population: 77.9%

Men: 83.2%

Women: 73.1% (2015 estimates)

Total population: 69.4%

Men: 77.5%

Women: 62.2% (estimated 2003.)

Expectations of Years in School (from Primary School to Higher Education):

Total: 8 years

Men: 8 years

Women: 8 years (2013)

Unemployment, Youth Age 15-24

Total: 3.9%

Men: 3.1%

Women: 4.6% (2014 estimates)

Religion

Most Tanzanians today are Christians and Muslims. The relationship between the number of followers between the two religions is considered very politically sensitive and questions about religious adherence have never been included in the census questionnaires since 1967.

For many years estimates have been repeated that every third of the population follows Islam, Christianity, and traditional religions. Since there is a high probability that there is no high percentage of traditional religions, various publications have been competing to provide estimates by giving one side or the other a large portion of the same third portion, or trying to show equal distribution.

Estimates from the Pew Report showed 36% Islam and Christianity 60% (2010).

The rest are Hindus, Buddhists, animists, and non-believers. Most Christians are Catholics, Lutherans or Seventh-day Adventists, although a number of other Pentecostal, Anglican, and Eastern Orthodox churches are also represented in the country. Most Muslims in Tanzania are Sunni, although there are also a number of followers of Ibadi, Shia, Ahmadis, Bohora, and Sufis. Muslims are concentrated in coastal areas and inland areas along the old trade routes.

For more articles on Tanzania ethnic groups click here!